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Neuroscience and Psychedelics:

Research, Applications, and Therapy

This page is dedicated to the advancement and proliferation of knowledge related to the new understanding of Psychedelic medicines. 
While these substances often carry a negative stigma and taboo, we ask that you learn for yourself and make an informed decision. 

RESEARCH     |     MICRODOSING     |     THERAPY     |      BOOKS    |     PODCASTS & TED TALKS   |    RISKS

ASSISTED THERAPY FOR:   Depression   |   Anxiety   |   PTSD   |    ADHD    |   Cancer  |   Cluster Headaches   |   Addictions

FACT SHEETS:    Psilocybin    |     Lysergic Acid     

LSD   |   Psilocybin   |   MDMA   |   Ketamine  |  Ayahuasa  |  Mescaline   

FMRI representation of Normal versus Psilocybin

Greater Integration and communication. The lines represent axonal connection between different areas of your brain.
Image Adapted:  Homological Scaffolds of Brain Functional Networks (FMRI study, Petri 2014)

*Disclaimer:  At this time, Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy is only available in clinical trials.  We do Not offer this treatment at NADC. However, with an open mind, we encourage all to explore the modern research and benefits. Psychedelic use is still illegal in the United States, unless administered by a doctor. We do not advocate any illegal activities. The FDA is unsurpisingly cautious and laws are extremely strict. The history of this ban is worth investigating. But with legal and social ramifications, along with potential health risks, we encourage everyone to be well informed and safe. We only wish to introduce this therapy form to the vast majority that is misinformed and ask that they re-form an opinion about these medicines.



Since 2006, the Third Wave of clinical research and therapeutic applications of psychedelics has been underway. Far from the recreational, hippie stigma, Psychedelics have evolved into the accepted treatment of significant issues. Microdosing has become an established method for dealing with ADHD, Depression, and Unlocking creativity.  Anyone trapped by the old paradigms will be very surprised. 

LSD versus placebo. FMRI scanResearch investigating classic psychedelics as treatments for addiction was initiated in the first wave of classic psychedelic research in the mid twentieth-century, but was ultimately terminated as a result of misinformation, stigma, lack of funding, and legal proscription. For the most part, plant medicine and use of psychedelics is misrepresented. There is a taboo in society still. The outspoken work of Michael Pollan, Paul Stamets and many researchers has ushered us to the Third Wave, a tipping point where modern research and communication is informing the public. People are talking about the benefits, though often in corners and in whispers. Ancient and Sacred ceremonies by shamans have been part of every culture, though often demonized. This led to the First Wave of investigation and the discovery of LSD in 1938 by Albert Hoffman, a chemist working for a pharmaceutical company. The benefits evolved quickly and by the 1950's and 60's, the Scientific Method was applied to create the Second Wave. The clinical benefits of psychedelics were well established by research and clinical application was wide spread for those that suffered with Depression, Anxiety, PTSD, Addiction, and other debilitating conditions within major institutions and rehabilitaton centers. The research and clinical applications came to a crashing halt when recreational use and mind expansion efforts overtook clinical applicaton. Psychologists such as Timothy Leary and Ram Dass at Harvard opened the floodgates with uncontrolled experimentation. Then the conservative Nixon-era shut down funding for research and created a negative stigma around these substances with false images and many exaggerations about deaths related to use. This scared the public and created the taboo.  It is noted by many researchers that LSD and Psilocybin has no known lethal dosage level and is non-addictive.  

It is noted that in the 60's, these drugs were classified as Schedule I, indicating they have a high potential for abuse, not currently accepted as a medical treatment, and lack safety even under the supervision of a doctor. We believe this is not correct and will be re-evaluated very soon. LSD and Psilocybin are about to enter Stage 3 Clinical Trials for Depression and Addicion, meaning that their status will have to change from Schedule I to Schedule III, with widespread clinical application around the corner. There needs to be an End to the Ban and a change in social thought. For further history and why these medicines have been demonized by government and pharmaceutical lobbies, the interested reader is referred to Michael Pollan's 2018 book How to Change your Mind. It likely will.

After remaining hidden for three decades, researchers began bringing Psychedelic Medicine out of the shadows in 2006.  Griffiths 2006 study, funded by NIH, opened the doors to legitimate study once again. Many researchers are now investigating the benefits in double-blind trials with major funding (MAPS, John Hopkins Study, etc.)  As of 2018, 50 U.S. based researchers hold Class I drug licenses from the DEA to investigate the benefits of LSD, Psilocybin, MDMA, Ketamine, Ayahuasca, and many other substances. Although there is still a taboo amongst the majority when the word "Psychedelic" is said, we believe that like Cannabis, the majority will see the benefits of Psychedlics very soon and that it will be legalized and used in therapeutic, under the guidance and supervision of doctors. The data from research is very hard to argue with.  The effectiveness of LSD and Psilocybin to treat Depression and Addiction in research trials has reached rates as high as 80%, without a return of symptoms for six months. There are no treatments (medications or therapies) that come close to the effective benefit. Government will resist and society will remember the stigma. Pharmaceuticals will fight against, because their expensive medications are not as effective. But the conversation has become universal and the benefits are undeniable. This is why large scale studies are beginning and reseachers are opening the vision to the world.

Image above:  Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.  Robin Carhart-Harris, 2016.  Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States.  

*We do not advocate for the illegal use of Psychedelics at this time. We encourage all to become well informed and assist with legisltation that will allow medical and therapeutic applications.


See also the Bibliographies in each study

Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. (Griffiths, 2006, Psychopharmacologia)

"The effects of a high dose of Psilocybin shows 79% of clinically depressed individually had significant decrease in symptoms after six months"  

Human Hallucinogen Research: Guidelines for Safety. (Johnson, 2008, J Psychopharmacology)

Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial. (Griffiths, 2016, J Psychopharmacology)

- John Hopkins Psychedelic Research Study

Modern Clinical Research on LSD (Liechti, 2017 in Neuropsychopharmacology)

Psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression: fMRI-measured brain mechanisms (Carhart-Harris, 2017 in Nature)

Current Perspective on MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Sascha, 2018) 
   66% remission rate in PTSD


2010 New York Times Article:  Hallucinogens Have Doctors Tuning In Again

2015 New Yorker Article:  The Trip Treatment. Research into psychedelics, shut down for decades, is now yielding exciting results


Effects of Psilocybin in Major Depressive Disorder

Effects of Psilocybin-Facilitated Experience on the Psychology and Effectiveness of Professional Leaders in Religion

Using BOLD fMRI to measure the effects of psilocin on brain activity and connectivity

A Pilot Study of Psilocybin-Facilitated Smoking Cessation Treatment

Persisting Effects of Psilocybin on Emotional Brain Functioning in Healthy Volunteers

Psilocybin Effects on Attention, Perception and Cognition

Experimental Studies on the Effects of Psilocybin on Binocular Depth Inversion, Binocular Rivalry

A Double-Blind Trial of Psilocybin-Assisted Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

NYU School of Medicine Researchers Seek Religious Leaders For Study



Microdosing involves taking tiny amounts of psychedelic substances in order to produce subtle changes in cognitive function without altering perception. Extensive anecdotal reports suggest that microdosing with LSD or Psilocybin can improve mood, enhance cognition, increase productivity, and boost creativity. Until now, no rigorous scientific research has been done to investigate these effects or to assess the safety of this practice. The Beckley/Imperial Psychedelic Research Microdosing Study, led by Amanda Fielding, will soon undertake the world’s first scientific investigation into the effects of microdosing on mood (including depression, anxiety, and vitality), cognitive functions (Insight and Processing speed), creativity and general wellbeing.

Microdosing Psychedelics - James Fadiman site

The Third - Microdosing Guide

How One Year of Microdosing helped my Career, Relationships, and Happiness

HuffPost: Everything you wanted to know about Microdosing but were afraid to ask





- Psychedelic assisted Psychotherapy: A paradigm shift  (Schenberg, 2018)

- LSD Assisted Psychotherapy (MAPS)

- Psychedelic Therapy (Wikipedia)



Psychedelic Explorer's Guide, James Fadiman

How to Change your Mind, Michael Pollan

Stealing Fire, Steven Kotler

- The Doors of Perception, Aldous Huxley



Psychedelic Education
LSD   |   Psilocybin   |   MDMA   |   Ketamine  |  Ayahuasa  |  Mescaline



The science of psilocybin and its use to relieve suffering. Roland Griffiths, 2016 at TEDMED

Paul Stamets, 2011 at TEDMED

Paul Rogan Podcast with Dennis McKenna

Tim Ferris Podcast with Michael Pollan 

Doug Fabrizio Podcast with Michael Pollan (NPR)

Sam Harris podcast with Michael Pollan (Waking Up)

Stoned Ape Hypothesis. Paul Stamets and Joe Rogan


*We will offer No information on where or how to obtain any illegal substances. All related requests will be ignored.
As Paul Stamets famously said "Mother Nature provides, I don't!" 
Safe Journeys.